Biological Oceanography -

Ecology and adaptations

The ocean's physical and chemical and geological character results in several habitat types that have been exploited by a diverse array of species.

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Table of Contents

Title slide

Physical and biological aspects of the environment

The pelagic and bethic provinces

The ocean can also be divided into zones based upon depth of light penetration.

Taxonomic classification used in zoology.

The five major kingdoms

Marine organisms can also be classified by lifestyle.

Examples of plankton




Epi- and in-fauna and flora of the benthos

Environmental factors in the marine environment

Example: effects of temperature on barnacle activity


Example: osmoregulation in marine and freshwater fishes

Example: Hydrostatic pressure as a function of depth

More than 90% of marine plants are algae and most are unicellular and microscopic.

Terrestrial versus aquatic energy flow

Surface area to volume ratios

Zooplankton include the copepods and foraminifera.


The morphology of fish has evolved to allow them to move through the water easily.

Drag in fish

Different fish body plans

Intertidal benthic communities generally display vertical zonation that parallels sea level.

Controls on vertical zonation in the intertidal

Author: Sean Todd


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