Statistical Syntax

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Variables are represented by a letter, usually upper case.

A letter with a bar over the top refers to the arithmetic mean of that variable

s refers to the standard deviation of a population, s2 refers to the variance of a population

s refers to the standard deviation of a sample, s2 refers to the variance of a sample

Xi refers to a datum point in variable X, in the ith position

S means sum the following values

SX2 means square the numbers in variable, X, then sum them

(SX)2 means sum the numbers in variable X, then square the result

f usually refers to frequency counts within a variable

p(A) is the probability of event A

p(A u B) is a union; the probability of event A or B occurring

p(A n B) is an intersection; the probability of event A and B occurring

p(A|B) is a conditional probability, the probability that A will occur given that B has already occurred

nCx refers to combination math

nPx refers to permutation math

An ! after a character means factorial (ie n! = n * (n -1 ) * (n - 2) * ....*1)

z is a standardized score, measured in standard deviation away from a population mean